SHAIKH UTHMAN IBN FODIO
شايك عثمان بن فوديو
يجب على كل شخص مسؤول أن يتعلم ما يكفي من هذا العلم (التصوف - التصوف الإسلامي) لتمكينه من اكتساب الصفات الجدير بالثناء
والاحتفاظ به من اللوم - الصفات الجدارة
"Every responsible person must learn enough of this science (Sufism-Islamic Mysticism) to enable him acquire praise–worthy qualities and to keep him from blame–worthy qualities"
by Shaik Usman Bin Fodio
Shaikh Uthman Ibn Fodio) (1754, Gobir – 1817, Sokoto) was a religious teacher, writer and Islamic promoter, and the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate. Dan Fodio was one of a class of urbanized ethnic Fulani living in the Hausa Statesin what is today northern Nigeria. He was a leader who followed the Sunni Maliki school of Jurisprudence and the Qadiri branch of Sufism; the oldest Tariqa in Nigeria.
BIOGRAPHY AT A GLANCE
السيرة الذاتية في لمحة
A Bit of Background
قليلا من الخلفية
Usman was born in the Hausa state of Gobir, in what is now northwestern Nigeria. His father, Muhammad Fodiye, was an Islamic scholar from the Toronkawa clan, which had emigrated from Futa-Toro in Senegal about the 15th century. While he was still young, Usman moved south with his family to Degel, where he studied the Qurʾān with his father. Subsequently he moved on to other scholar relatives, traveling from teacher to teacher in the traditional way and reading extensively in the Islamic sciences. One powerful intellectual and religious influence at this time was his teacher in the southern Saharan city of Agadez, Jibrīl ibn ʿUmar, a radical figure whom Usman both respected and criticized and by whom he was admitted to the Qādirī and other Ṣūfī orders.
About 1774–75 Usman began his active life as a teacher, and for the next 12 years he combined study with peripatetic teaching and preaching in Kebbi and Gobir, followed by a further five years in Zamfara. During this latter period, though committed in principle to avoiding the courts of kings, he visited Bawa, the sultan of Gobir, from whom he won important concessions for the local Muslim community (including his own freedom to propagate Islam); he also appears to have taught the future sultan Yunfa.
The spiritual chain (silsila) Linking Shaik Usman Bin Fodi to the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) is listed as follows:
Usman Bin Fodi (Mujaddadi)
BOOKS WRITTEN BY SHAIK USMAN BIN FODI
Mukhtar Min Mu'allafati Sheikh Uthman bin Fodiyo
Dan Fodio wrote more than a hundred books concerning religion, government, culture, and society. He developed a critique of existing African Muslim elites for what he saw as their greed, paganism, violation of the standards of Sharia law, and use of heavy taxation. He encouraged literacy and scholarship, for women as well as men, and several of his daughters emerged as scholars and writers. His writings and sayings continue to be much quoted today, and are often affectionately referred to as Shehu in Nigeria. Some followers consider dan Fodio to have been a mujaddid, a divinely inspired "reformer of Islam".