WELCOME TO THE QADIRIYYA WORLD
Where you exploit the historical origin of Tariqatul Qadiriyya and its Doctrines
The Qadiriyya (Arabic: القادريه, ) are members of the Qadiri tariqa (Sufi order). The tariqa got its name from Abdul Qadir Gilani (1077–1166, also transliterated Jilani), who was from Gilan. The order relies strongly upon adherence to the fundamentals of Islam.
The order, with its many offshoots, is widespread, particularly in the Arabic-speaking world, and can also be found in Turkey, Indonesia, Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Balkans, Russia, Palestine, Israel, China, and East and West Africa especially Nigeria.
The founder of the Qadiriyya, ‘Sheik Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (1077/8-1166 CE), A man of Persian decent he immigrated to Baghdad at the age of eighteen where various religious scholars instructed him. His primary instruction was in Hanbalite religious law. His instructor was Abu Sa’id b. ‘ali al-Muharrami (d. 1119); Sheik Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani’s ascension as a religious leader was cemented in 1133 when he was named a Shaykh of the madrasa that al-Muharrami had founded, a position he held until his death in 1166.
When the Mongols sacked Baghdad in 1258 Sheik Abd al-Qadir’s madrasa was left untouched. Perhaps the sparing of this site inspired the 13thCentury writings of Nur al-Din ‘Ali al-Shattanufi (1246/7-1314 CE) a teacher at al-Azhar university-mosque in Cairo. He “consolidated the legend of ‘Sheik Abd al-Qadir as the holder of the highest authority among the awliya’ and the Prophet’s deputy in the religious guidance of the Muslim community in the immediate aftermath of the collapse of the caliphate. . . His legend thus alleviated the great religious uncertainties this cataclysmic event caused to Muslims, and accorded with the nostalgic sentiments Baghdad evoked in the Muslims after the collapse of the caliphate.” When the Ottoman Turks conquered the area centuries later in 1534 sultan Sulayman (1494-1566 CE) had a dome placed on Sheik Abd al-Qadir’s tomb thereby, “he signaled the recognition . . . of the Qadiriyyatariqah as his main Sunnite allies in Iraq in the confrontation with the Safawid Shi’ites.”
The legitimacy of the Qadiriyya thus firmly established it began to migrate throughout the Muslim world. It proliferated across Northern Africa, Afghanistan, and China.
The Qadiriyyah has not developed any distinctive doctrines or teachings outside of mainstream Islam. They believe in the fundamental principles of Islam, but interpreted through mystical experience. The movement's founder 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani emphasised the importance of humaneness and charity. The order's rituals are characterised by the loud recitation of verses in praise of Muhammad (s.a.w) and the singing of sacred hymns. These are sometimes accompanied by various bodily movements designed to induce ecstasy. In some areas local pilgrimages to zawiyas (shrines) of the saints who are believed to be descendants of 'Abd al Qadir, and festivals are celebrated in their honour.
THE SPREAD OF THE LIGHTS OF QADIRIYYA
Building a Better World
The Qadiriyya flourished, surviving the Mongolian conquest of Baghdad in 1258, and remained an influential Sunni institution. After the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, the legend of Gilani was further spread by a text entitled The Joy of the Secrets in Abdul-Qadir's Mysterious Deeds (Bahjat al-asrar fi ba'd manaqib 'Abd al-Qadir) attributed to Nur al-Din 'Ali al-Shattanufi, who depicted Gilani as the ultimate channel of divine grace and helped the Qadiri order to spread far beyond the region of Baghdad.
By the end of the fifteenth century, the Qadiriyya had distinct branches and had spread to Morocco, Spain, Turkey, India, Ethiopia, Somalia, and present-day Mali. Established Sufi sheikhs often adopted the Qadiriyya tradition without abandoning leadership of their local communities. During the Safavid dynasty's rule of Baghdad from 1508 to 1534, the sheikh of the Qadiriyya was appointed chief Sufi of Baghdad and the surrounding lands. Shortly after the Ottoman Empire conquered Baghdad in 1534, Suleiman the Magnificentcommissioned a dome to be built on the mausoleum of Abdul-Qadir Gilani, establishing the Qadiriyya as his main allies in Iraq.
Khawaja Abdul-Allah, a sheikh of the Qadiriyya and a descendant of Muhammad (s.a.w), is reported to have entered China in 1674 and traveled the country preaching until his death in 1689. One of Abdul-Allah's students, Qi Jingyi Hilal al-Din, is said to have permanently rooted Qadiri Sufism in China. He was buried in Linxia City, which became the center of the Qadiriyya in China. By the seventeenth century, the Qadiriyya had reached Ottoman-occupied areas of Europe.
Sultan Bahu contributed to the spread of Qadiriyya in western India. His method of spreading the teachings of the Sufi doctrine of Faqr was through his Punjabi couplets and other writings, which numbered more than 140. He granted the method of dhikr and stressed that the way to reach divinity was not through asceticism or excessive or lengthy prayers but through selfless love carved out of annihilation in God, which he called fana.
Sheikh Sidi Ahmad al-Bakka'i (Arabic: الشيخ سيدي أحمد البكاي بودمعة of the Kunta family, born in the region of the Noun river, d. 1504 in Akka) established a Qadiri zawiya (Sufiresidence) in Walata. In the sixteenth century the family spread across the Sahara to Timbuktu, Agades, Bornu, Hausaland, and other places, and in the eighteenth century large numbers of Kunta moved to the region of the middle Niger where they established the village of Mabruk. Sidi Al-Mukhtar al-Kunti (1728–1811) united the Kunta factions by successful negotiation, and established an extensive confederation. Under his influence the Maliki school of Islamic law was reinvigorated and the Qadiriyyah order spread throughout Mauritania, the middle Niger region, Guinea, the Ivory Coast, Futa Toro, and Futa Jallon. Kunta colonies in the Senegambian region became centers of Muslim teaching.
Halisa – Halisiyya
The Halisa offshoot was founded by Abdurrahman Halis Talabani (1212 – 1275 Hijra) in Kerkuk, Iraq. Hungry and miserable people were fed all day in his Tekke without regard for religion. Dawlati Osmaniyya donated money and gifts to his Tekke in Kerkuk. Sultan Abdul-Majid Khan's (Khalife of İslam, Sultan of Ottoman Empire) wife Sultana Hatun sent many gifts and donations to his Tekke as a follower. Among his followers were many leaders, rulers, and military and government officials. It was known to everyone that he lived in complete conviction. Because of the example Talibani set as a religious figure, the people's ties to him were solid and strong.
After his death, his branch was populated in Turkey, and he was followed by Dede Osman Avni Baba, Sheikh Al-Haj Ömer Hüdai Baba, Sheikh Al-Haj Muhammed Baba, Sheikh Al-Haj Mustafa Hayri Baba, and Sheikh Al-Haj Mehmet Baba.
The Qadri Noshahi silsila (offshoot) was established by Syed Muhammad Naushah Ganj Bakhsh of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan, in the late sixteenth century. Notable Sufis in this order include Sayeen Shams Ali Qalandar of Shamsabad, Hujra Shah Muqeem, Pakistan.
Also known as Qadiriya Sultaniya, the order was started by Sultan Bahu in the seventeenth century and spread in the western part of Indian Subcontinent. Hence, it follows most of the Qadiriyya approach. In contrast, it does not follow a specific dress code or require seclusion or other lengthy exercises. Its mainstream philosophy is contemplation of belovedness towards God.
The Qadiriyya–Mukhtariyya Brotherhood
This branch of the Qadiriyya came into being in the eighteenth century resulting from a revivalist movement led by Al-Mukhtar al-Kunti, a Sufi of the western Sahara who wished to establish Qadiri Sufism as the dominant religion in the region. In contrast to other branches of the Qadiriyya that do not have a centralized authority, the Mukhtariyya brotherhood was highly centralized. Its leaders focused on economic prosperity as well as spiritual well-being, sending their disciples on trade caravans as far away as Europe.
The Qadiriyya Harariya
The founder of the Qadiriyya Harariya tariqa was Shaykh Hachime Harari. His shrine is located in Harar City, Ethiopia. All the shrines of the shaykhs are in Ethiopia and two Shrines of the shaykhs silsila are in Borama City, in the north of Somalia. The current shaykh is Mohamed Nasrudin bin Shaykh Ibrahim Kulmiye of Somalia. The tariqa spread in three countries: Djibouti, Somalia, and Ethiopia.